Central Gwinnett-Lawrenceville High School can trace its roots back to 1821 when the Georgia General Assembly passed an act to open an Academy in Lawrenceville. On January 1, 1826, the Gwinnett Academy began classes in Reading, Writing, English Grammar, Science, Latin and Greek. In 1853, the Lawrenceville Female Seminary opened with classes in Greek, Latin and Stitchery.
The first public school in Lawrenceville began in 1902 after the city of Lawrenceville enacted a school tax. The citizens of town believed that the city needed public schools to provide for the population growth resulting from the construction of railroads. A new brick structure for the high school was constructed in 1923. The "Lawrenceville Panthers" in their gold and white were strong contenders in basketball, track, Latin and Greek orations, one-act plays, girls' and boys' declamation, music, spelling, and debate.
The Lawrenceville Public School System became a part of Gwinnett County Public Schools in 1938. The current Central Gwinnett High School was built in 1957 and was part of the consolidation of Lawrenceville High School, Bethesda High School, and Lilburn High School. When the former Lilburn High School attendance area was assigned to Berkmar High School, the Lawrenceville community succeeded in having the name changed to Central Gwinnett-Lawrenceville High School.